Beijing Opera 101 什么是京剧
Credit to Han Wen / Beijing Bureau of Culture
Beijing Opera, or Chinese Opera, or Peking Opera (simplified Chinese: 京剧; traditional Chinese: 京劇; pinyin: Jīngjù) is a form of traditional Chinese theatre which combines music, vocal performance, mime, dance and acrobatics. It arose in the late 18th century and became fully developed and recognized by the mid-19th century.
Beijing opera features four main types of performers. With their elaborate and colorful costumes, performers are the only focal points on Beijing opera's characteristically sparse stage. They utilize the skills of speech, song, dance, and combat in movements that are symbolic and suggestive, rather than realistic. Above all else, the skill of performers is evaluated according to the beauty of their movements. The art form has come to be regarded as one of the cultural treasures of China and made the list of UNESCO Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity.
Major performance troupes are based in Beijing and Tianjin in the north, and Shanghai in the south. The art form is also preserved in Taiwan, where it is known as Guoju (國劇; pinyin: Guójù). It has also spread to other countries such as the United States and Japan.
京剧（Beijing Opera）又称平剧、京戏，是中国影响最大的戏曲剧 种，分布地以北京为中心，遍及全国。清代乾隆五十五年起，通过与各地方戏曲不断的交流、融合，最终形成京剧。京剧流播全国，影响甚广，有中国戏曲三鼎甲“榜首”及“国剧”之称。它走遍世界各地，成为介绍、传播中国传统文化的重要手段， 2010年被联合国教科文组织列入非物质文化遗产名录。京剧的角色分生旦净丑，由西皮和二簧组成它的基本音乐素材，故事选自历史、文学、民间传说，欣赏京剧可关注唱念做打等各方面的唯美、虚拟和写意性。
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